Evaluación de los efectos causados por la exposición a gases en ambientes frecuentados por parte de funcionarios de los parques nacionales Volcán Poás y Volcán Turrialba
Ortiz Apuy, Eric
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This study was developed under the framework of occupational health and occupational safety in order to evaluate the impact caused by the chemical substances emitted by volcanoes on the health of park officials. The environmental concentration of SO2 (g), H2S (g), HCl (g), HNO3 (ac) and HF (g) was determined in the Poás volcano (PNVP) and the Turrialba volcano (PNVT) of Costa Rica, through of active sampling with absorbent tubes and Denuders diffusion tubes. Additionally, rainwater, surface water and drinking water samples were collected in order to monitor the diffusion of derived anions (SO4 2-, Cl-, F- and NO3 -) in the hydrological cycle of each park. The most important results correspond to SO2 (g), which reached a maximum concentration of (0.40 ± 0.04) mg / m3 and (1.90 ± 0.11) mg / m3 in PNVT and PNVP respectively. (3 h average); These values generate an alert when compared with international guidelines established for this period (Costa Rica (0.50 mg / m3), Colombia (0.75 mg / m3), United States (1.30 mg / m3) and Ecuador (1 , 50 mg / m3) Other species remained below the detection limit: HCl (g) (<30 μg / m3), HF (g) (<30 μg / m3), HNO3 (aq) (<10 μg / m3) and H2S (g) (<2 μg / m3), however, its presence in the area cannot be ruled out due to the existing historical evidence and the identifiable impacts in the surroundings (mainly in PNVT). Some determinants are considered environmental factors such as: solar radiation, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction in dispersion and the impact of volcanic emanations. In parallel, a survey of perceived discomfort was deployed together with a review of histories medical (epicrisis) among the park rangers concerned. The results show conditions related to the respiratory pathways. upper atorias and skin. Despite the fact that the symptoms are congruent with the literature and that there is a common pattern among the epicrisis evaluated, the cause-effect cannot be directly linked to volcanic emissions because the population is not statistically significant and the complete diagnosis of each condition. However, it is emphasized that prolonged exposure to volcanic gases increases the possibility of developing health problems (mainly respiratory or heart conditions), whether due to chronic or acute exposure.
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